The Chaco is an ecocultural region that contains significant portions of Paraguay and Argentina, and spans three of Bolivia’s nine provinces (departamentos) – Chuquisaca, Santa Cruz, and Tarija.

The name “Chaco” derives from a Quechua word meaning “hunting grounds”, and the region’s dry forests and shrublands remain home to an impressive array of wildlife such as jaguar, peccary, and guanaco. 


The Chaco is predominantly rural with farming – particularly corn – and ranching comprising the primary economic activities.

Bolivia Chaco Fund A map of the Chaco eco-cultural region
Guaraní children dancing in circle
Bolivia Chaco Fund Life
Bolivia Chaco Landscape

The Chaco War, which resulted in Bolivia ceding a large portion of its land to Paraguay in 1935, was the deadliest military conflict in South America during the 20th century.

The Chaco is one of Bolivia’s final frontiers, lacking all-weather roads and infrastructure in many areas. The region is traversed by a few year-round rivers, most notably the Pilcomayo and Parapetí. This part of Bolivia experiences an extreme climate, with below freezing temperatures in winter and 120-degree heat in summer.

Bolivia Chaco Landscape
Bolivia Chaco Fund Dry Road Iniguazu

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